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ducal titles in Spain, and with them, for the
most part, is joined a grandeeship of the first
class. The oldest dukedom is that of Benevente,
and it is among the titles of the Duke
of Osuna, who is thus the premier noble of
Spain. This title was created in 1461. Then
follow the titles of A Iva Medina-Celi, Arcos,
Grandia, and some others, all of the fifteenth
century. The youngest titles are those of the
Duke of Valencia (Narvaez), 1847, Tarrancon,
a brother of Munoz, the soldier of fortune, who
married Queen Christina, 1848; and Saragossa,
possessed by the famous defender of that
town, General Palazon, whose heroism was
only rewarded at last under the ministry of

With these recent dukedoms, however, no
estates were bestowed, and their only privilege
consists in that of kissing hands on gala
days a few minutes sooner than more ancient
nobility of lower grades.

The number of Marquisates is five hundred
and twenty-four, only four dating so far
back as the fifteenth century. The first marquis
in Spain was the famous scholar and natural
philosopher, Villena (1445), who, like all clever
men in the good old times, was believed by his
contemporaries to be a dealer with the devil.
The present possessor of this title is the Duke
of Frias. Most of the rnarquisates, however,
belong to the seventeenth, eighteenth, and
nineteenth centuries; no less than one hundred
and thirty-four have been made in the century
to which we ourselves belong.

There are three hundred and ninety-eight
Counts, and among them many of the most
famous names in Spanish story, such as the
Count de Valencia de Don Juan (1387), the
Count de Trastamaro (1445), Trevino (1493).
Of Viscounts there are forty-eight; of Barons
forty, mostly creations of the eighteenth and
nineteenth centuries. All the dukes are
grandees, and many of the marqisses, counts,
and viscounts, but not any of the barons, who
are. the lowest order of the nobility. Those
who are not grandees are called simply Titulados.
They, are less connected with the
court, and usually live upon their own estates,
which thus mostly show better signs of care
and culture than the others. Under these lords
the peasantry are not quite naked, and have
now and then something more solid than
pomegranates for their dinner.

At this moment, perhaps, the nobles of
Spain are displaying no abatement of their
ostentation and extravagance, but their latter
day is near. Most of the entailed estates are
hopelessly encumbered, and must shortly pass
into the hands of creditors. Where this
is not the case they will be divided by the
new laws of succession. Then there is
another law that makes the possibility of
their existence as a large class, for another
century, extremely difficult. Every new heir
to a title must pay a sum of money to the
government before he can lay claim to his
privilege; for this he obtains what is called
a real carta personal, or certificate of identity.
Should the first heir not be able thus to take
up the title, any of the collaterals may do so;
but if on account of the magnitude of the
sum all should refuse, the title then becomes

Then, again, when the several heirs to one
estate cannot agree about the terms of its
division, it has to be sold, and the title travels
with it to the purchaser. Should any unauthorised
person use a title, he is liable to a
fine of double the sum fixed to be paid for it
in law by an heir; and having been thus made
to pay double for his whistle, it is taken from

The title of duke costs 500,000 reals, or
about £5000; a marquis, who is at the same
time a grandee, pays 300,000; if not a grandee,
200,000; a count being a grandee, 250,000;
otherwise, 150,000. A viscount pays 100,000,
and a baron 80,000 reals to government, as
the fine on entering into possession. Only
one person in a family is permitted to wear
the title, as with us. Before the abolition of
majorities, it was customary for the heir
apparent to be also titled; but this is now no
longer the case. The younger branches of the
family go by the family name, without any

In the year 1847, when the present Duke
of Medina-Celi. succeeded to his property, he
found himself no less than thirty-six-fold a
grandee, and had, therefore, to settle the following
little bill, made out in this form by

H. G. the Duke of Medina-Celi,
Dr. to the Royal Treasury of Spain.
To 6 Titles of Duke . . 3,000,000 reals.
"   14 Marquisntes . . 4,200,000   "
"   16 Countships . . . 4,000,000  "
                        Total 11,200,000 reals.

Or about £112,000, which must have shaken
the accumulations on the rents a little.
Besides this expenditure of money, there
must be a great sacrifice of time and ink,
whenever his grace wishes to sign his six-and-thirty
names. A humbler Spanish grandee,
who was once benighted, knocked at a lonely
inn. When asked the usual "Quien es?" (who
is there?) he replied, "Don Diego de Mendoza
Silva Ribiera Guzman Pimentel Osorio Ponce
de Leon Zuniga, Acufia Teller y Giron,
Sandoval y Roxas, Velasco Man"- He had
not nearly finished when the landlord exclaimed,
shutting his window, "Go with God!
There is not room for half of you."

In 1836, the Cortez thought proper to
abolish all tithes of whatever kind soever,
without indemnity of any sort to their possessors.
Many of the tithes being, as with us,
in the hands of laymen, this loss fell heavily
on the nobles; and the Marquis de St. Jago
lost no less than 80,000 reals a year. In fact
it ruined him, there being only a very insignificant
estate joined with the title; but the