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"Hiranyaka said, 'What would become of
me if I were to remain behind? Take me, then,
with thee.'

"Thereupon they began their journey together,
happy in discoursing on a variety of agreeable

"Whilst they were yet at a distance the
Tortoise discerned them, and arose and went to meet
them. Having performed the duties due to
a guest to the Crow, he extended the right of
hospitality to the Mouse also.

"'Friend Manthara,' said the Crow,' pay
special attention to this stranger, for he is loaded
with virtuous deeds. He is an ocean of kindness.
His name is Hiranyaka, the prince of
Mice. I question whether the Serpent King
Anatu were able with his two thousand tongues
to do justice to his worth.' Thereupon he
related the story of the Pigeons.

"Manthara respectfully saluted Hiranyaka;
and, after they had eaten and were refreshed,
he begged the Mouse to tell his history.

"Hiranyaka then narrated how he was born in
a college of religious mendicants, where one
mendicant of peculiar sanctity resided. His
dish, on which the faithful placed their gifts,
was always well supplied, and Hiranyaka was
accustomed to steal his food every day, and
formed a hoard likewise. Indeed, Hiranyaka
confessed that covetousness was his natural
besetting sin. He was so cunning and active that
for a long time he was not found out. But one
day the mendicant discovered the Mouse in the
act of leaping up to his dish, and by watching
he discovered also the Mouse's hoard. Taking
a spade the mendicant dug out the hole, and
seized his hoard. Upon which Hiranyaka became
weak and thin, and made many wise reflections
on the loss of wealth; but after a while he began
to reflect on the misery of thieving, and the
evils of covetousness. His reflections were
admirable, but are too numerous to mention. After
a time, laying these wise thoughts to heart, he
came to see the great gain of contentment. All
misfortunes are the lot of him whose mind is
not contented. Whoever has a contented mind
has all riches. To him whose foot is enclosed in
a shoe, is it not as though the earth were
carpeted with leather? All has been read by
him, heard by him, followed by him who having
cast Hope behind his back places no reliance on
Expectation. Having reflected a great deal, he
resolved to retire to an uninhabited forest, to
reduce himself to the strictest necessaries, and
to be removed far from the scene of his
reduced fortunes, for he owned that the loss of
his hoard had been felt by him as a great calamity.
'Afterwards,' said he, in conclusion, 'I was
favoured by this friend with an uninterrupted
succession of kindness, and now I have in
addition the good fortune of having your honour
the Tortoise for a friend.'

"The Tortoise then made many observations,
filled with the profoundest wisdom, on the
subjects of Riches and Content. At length,
fearing that he might have fatigued his listeners,
he proposed that they should all live together
in friendship, and pass their time in amusing

"In this manner did they, feeding and roving
at their own pleasure, live at ease and contented.
After a while a Deer, pursued by the hunters,
came to them for refuge, and was admitted to
their friendship. Adverse circumstances arose,
they changed their place of abode, and
Manthara, the wise Tortoise, through excess of
caution and disregarding the words of his
friends, fell into the hands of a hunter, who
picked him up and tied him to his bow, saying,
'I am a lucky fellow;' but his three friends,
oppressed with sorrow, followed him at a
distance. Hiranyaka, especially, was troubled and
greatly lamented; but after he had lamented
he hit upon a stratagem, which they all joined
to execute, by means of which Manthara
the Tortoise was delivered from the hunter.
The four friends, then free from danger,
went on their journey, and arriving happily
at their station, led the rest of their life

This is the story of the Acquisition of Friends
told by Vishnu Sarman for the instruction of the
rajah's sons, who heard it with delight and

The above is taken from a choice Sanscrit
work called Hytopadesa. It is a collection of
the wisest aphorisms, linked together and
llustrated by stories like those we have quoted.
The aphorisms are so numerous, and some of
them so profound, that they present an
embarrassment of riches. Some of the stories
and aphorisms, however, would hardly be
received among Europeans. Throughout,
contempt and depreciation of women are remarkable.
The Hytopadesa was first published
in English many years ago by an enthusiastic
publisher named Stephen Austein, who had
lived at Hertford, and who ruined himself for
the sake of his devotion to Eastern wisdom.
Little is yet known of the work. Whether
in its original form it would ever be popular we
do not know; but we see an announcement
that Messrs. Smith and Elder are about to
publish an abridgment of the Hytopadesa, or
the Salutary Counsels of Vishnu Sarman.


                               GREAT EXPECTATIONS                                                                       Will be concluded in the Number for Saturday, 3rd August.

                    And, on SATURDAY, 10th AUGUST,
Will be commenced (to be completed in six months)
by the