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to be expelled. This annexation gave to the
colony a less bushy frontier, and, therefore, a
frontier, in as far as we consider only that
particular, more easy to defend. Colonel Harry
Smith, left in command of the conquered
province, had an opportunity of acquiring a
personal knowledge of the Kaffir chiefs. So
the matter was settled, until the English
Government at home annulled the treaty,
restored the new province to the Kaffirs,
retired to their old boundary, and sent Sir
Andries Stockenstrom to make some fresh
arrangements. The commando system was
abolished, a new Kaffir police was established,
and no colonist might seek his cattle, except
by aid of a policeman. Other arrangements
were made, of which the Kaffirs highly
approved. They thought that they had
thoroughly alarmed the white king, who had
cancelled the old treaty and drawn in his
horns. " Only," they said, " if we get back
all this, why may we not have the Kat
River, which we want more than all?"

Cattle-stealing did not cease. In 1840
Sandilli came of age, and received from
Macomo the power which had been held on
his behalf. A fresh treaty was made with
him by Sir G. Napier, and occasion was taken
to revise the Stockenstrom arrangement and
correct some of its inefficient clauses. The
old treaty was thought to deprive the colonists
of self-protection. The modification was
considered to be an improvement. In 1846 the
Kaffirs again burst upon the colony; the
struggle with them lasted for about two
years, and cost two millions of money, giving
no result. The Kaffirs might say, as fairly as
the English, that they were the conquerors.
The facts of the war are too recent to require
particular detail, and we need only hint that
now, in the year 1851, the Kaffirs are again
our persecutors. The rise of Port Natal is
connected with this contest between colonists
and Kaffirs. In the Kaffir war of 1835 cattle
belonging to the Boers were taken for
consumption by the troops; and when the farmers
sent their little bills for beef, they received
no attention. This was a grievance. Furthermore,
the Boers complained that, whereas
they had not been unwilling to emancipate
their slaves, yet they had been paid on West
Indian scale for the loss of labour twice as
valuable. They said that they considered it
no joke to pay taxes for English law, when it
neither protected their property from Kaffir
depredation, nor allowed them (which was
all they wanted) to protect themselves. So
the discontent, not altogether groundless,
spread, and the Dutchmen, during the year
1838, emigrated in large numbers from the
hated rule of England, though some law (by
what earthly right?) there was, forbidding
them to do so.

They plunged among the tribes of the
interior; and, some of the first emigrants
encamping on the Vaal River, a southern boundary
of the Zooloos, settled unconsciously on
ground by which Moselekatse, the Zooloo
chief, had forbidden any stranger to approach,
in consequence of numerous hostile incursions
from that quarter. These emigrants were
massacred by Zooloo warriors; and not
understanding the hint, others embroiled themselves
still farther, and came to bitter war with the
Zooloos. These tribes, however, unlike the
Kaffirs, fight in open field; so that they were,
after the first surprise, defeated without

The Emigrant Boers, settling at Port Natal,
proposed to found there a New Amsterdam,
and put themselves under the wing of
Holland. The Governor of the Cape, however,
determined otherwise, and sent a hundred
men with three guns to take military possession
of Port Natal. The Boers being out on
a commando, the soldiers were landed, and
put in a stockaded fort. The Dutch bitterly
refused to be subject to England. Government
decided against forming a settlement at
Natal, and the soldiers were recalled.

The Boers completely broke the power of
Dingaan and their Zooloo neighbours, and then
founded a town, Pieter-Maritzburg, about
fifty miles distant from Port Natal.

In 1841 the Boers, being about to attack
the Amaponda Kaffirs, a message was sent
from the Cape to warn them that they must
not injure our " allies." The Boers replied
that they were far away from English Government,
and should take what measures they
pleased for the defence of their own property.

Graham's Town is six hundred and fifty
miles from Cape Town. Two hundred and
fifty soldiers, with five guns, marched over a
rugged country, six hundred milesfrom
Graham's Town to Port Natalto overawe
the Boers. On notifying their arrival, they
immediately received notice to quit. They
attacked the Boers, by whom they were
outnumbered, and beaten, losing forty men and
two guns. The Boers attacked the camp,
and took another gun, with prisoners. The
soldiers stood a month's siege, and great
privation, with a courage worthy of being
expended in a better quarrel. Towards the
end of June (1842), a considerable force
arrived in a British frigate. The Dutch saw
that " the Queen of England " would have
them for children, and that resistance was
hopeless; so they acknowledged themselves
British subjects, gave up their spoils, and
went, disappointed men, to Pieter-Maritzburg.
And, from that time to this, Port
Natal has been a British colony.


I hear men laud the coming Exhibition,
   I read its promise in the printed page,
And thence I learn that its pacific mission
   Is to inform and dignify the age;
It comes to congregate the alien nations;
   In new, but friendly bonds, old foes to bind;
It comes to rouse to nobler emulations
   Man's skill of hand, man's energy of mind.