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six-and-thirty people usually sleep, three in
a row. There are seven other hotels in this
street for the accommodation of Californian
emigrants, besides three restaurants, and as
many newspaper offices, all of which cover
their houses with sign-boards of all colours
and dimensions. The town is enlightened by
three American newspapersthe Daily Echo,
the Star, and the Herald, containing
information from California, South America, the
States, and Europe. The Editors seem to
quarrel among themselves much less than is
usually the case in so small a community
the weather perhaps is too hot, and the
climate too enervating, for so heating an

The present Panama, however, is not the
same city which sent forth the savage swineherd
with his bloodthirsty crew to uproot and
destroy the glorious and happy empire of the
Incas. Pizarro did not equip his expedition,
nor did he, Almagro, and Luque pollute the
blessed sacrament by their wicked compact
in this city. Old Panama, now a miserable
ruin about six miles down the coast, was
deserted after Morgan and his buccaneers
had crossed the Isthmus, sacked the town,
and murdered every man, woman, and child
within its precincts. A mouldering heap of
stones, overgrown with creepers in a
pestilential swamp, is all that remains of that
proud city, the key of the Pacific, and one of
the brightest jewels in the Castilian crown;
from whose port those vessels sailed, whose
commander overthrew the most civilised
empire in the New World, added the vice-
regal province of Peru to the overgrown
dominions of Spain, and loaded a happy and
industrious people with the chains of slavery.
After the destruction of old Panama by
Morgan, the former site was deserted, and the
new town built, where it now stands; about
six miles west of the ancient position. The
anchorage is bad and inconvenient for shipping,
so that vessels usually lay off an island
called Toboga, about ten miles from Panama,
where on our arrival were two steamers
lying, bound for Californiathe Golden Gate
and the Winfield Scottbelonging to rival
companies. In Panama there were still many
of the passengers belonging to the Illinois,
the steamer which had preceded ours, whose
luggage had not yet overcome the difficulties
of the Cruces road.

Our own fellow-travellers continued to
arrive during the remainder of the day on
which we had reached the end of our toilsome
journey. Covered with mud, worn out
with fatigue, men, women, and children
hourly entered the gate of the city. Many
had met with pitiable misfortunes; one had
fallen off his mule nine times; another had
been obliged to leave his, over his ears in
black mud, and foot it for the rest of the way;
a lady had had her gold watch stolen in one
of the villanous huts on the road; one poor
woman died from exhaustion, caused by
fatigue, the day after her arrival in Panama;
and another lost her baby.

At length, however, they all arrived; on
the following day the luggage began to come
in; and on October the 6th the Golden Gate
sailed for San Francisco with the majority of
the passengers of the Sierra Nevada. Many
however were left behind, not having received
their luggage, or not possessing the needful
to pay for their passage. They seemed to be
at no loss, and soon set to work according
to their various devices, to replenish their
exhausted exchequer. One old fellow from
Philadelphia hired a room, and commenced
the sale of his infallible cure for dysentery;
a Californian got a mule and cart, either by
fair means or foul (the latter, probably), and
supplied the restaurants with spring water;
another got employment as a compositor in
the Herald office; a fourth undertook to whitewash
the French Hotel.

Such is the present route across the Isthmus
of Panama. Its existence will be very brief,
for those inconveniences will soon give way to
the comfort and rapidity of a railroad;
travellers will make the transit at a
quarter of the present cost, immensely
increased numbers of passengers will move
towards the West, and greater quantities of
gold will be poured into the Exchequer
of the republic of New Grenada, which
charges two dollars and a half, as head
tax, on every individual who passes through

Already do the Californians call the States
bordering on the Atlantic the "old country;"
already may we perceive sure signs of the
future strength and power of this young giant.
A network of railways will soon spread itself
over the splendid country between the Sierra
Nevada and the sea; cities will rise up in the
now wooded solitudes; and steamers will
connect California with every part of the



THE Pope was thrown into a very angry
state of mind when he heard of the King's
marriage, and fumed exceedingly. Many of
the English monks and friars, seeing that
their order was in danger, did the same;
some even declaimed against the King in
church before his face, and were not to be
stopped until he himself roared out
"Silence! " The King, not much the worse for
this, took it pretty quietly, and was very
glad when his Queen gave birth to a daughter,
who was christened ELIZABETH, and declared
Princess of Wales as her sister Mary had
already been.

One of the most atrocious features of this
reign was that Henry the Eighth was always
trimming between the reformed religion and
the unreformed one; so that the more he
quarrelled with the Pope, the more of his