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private property to himself as his forest right.
Above .all, he determined to have what
was called Ship Money, that is to say,
money, for the support of the fleetnot only
from the sea-ports, but from all the counties
of England; having found out that, in some
ancient time or other, all the counties paid it.
The grievance of this ship money being
somewhat too strong, JOHN CHAMBERS, a citizen of
London, refused to pay his part of it. For
this the Lord Mayor ordered John Chambers
to prison, and for that John Chambers brought
a suit against the Lord Mayor. LORD SAY,
also, behaved like a real nobleman, and
declared he would not pay. But, the sturdiest
and best opponent of the ship money was
JOHN HAMPDEN, a gentleman of
Buckinghamshire, who had sat among the vipers in
the House of Commons when there was such
a thing, and who had been the bosom friend
of Sir John Eliot. This case was tried before
the twelve judges in the Court of Exchequer;
and again the King's lawyers said it was
impossible that ship money could be wrong,
because the King could do no wrong,
however hard he triedand he really did try
very hard during these twelve years. Seven
of the judges said that was quite true, and
Mr. Hampden was bound to pay; five of
the judges said that was quite false, and Mr.
Hampden was not bound to pay. So the
King triumphed (as he thought), by making
Hampden the most popular man in
England, where matters were getting to that
height now that many honest Englishmen
could not endure their country, and sailed
away across the seas, to found a colony in
Massachusetts Bay in America. It is said
that Hampden himself and his relation OLIVER
CROMWELL, were going with a company of
such voyagers, and were actually on board
ship, when they were stopped by a proclamation,
prohibiting sea captains to carry out
such passengers without the royal license.
But O! it would have been well for the King
if he had let them go!

This was the state of England. If Laud
had been a madman just broke loose, he could
not have done more mischief than he did in
Scotland. In his endeavours (in which he
was seconded by the King, then in person in
that part of his dominions) to force his own
ideas of bishops, and his own religious forms
and ceremonies, upon the Scotch, he roused
that nation to a perfect frenzy. They formed
a solemn league, which they called The
Covenant, for the preservation of their own
religious forms; they rose in arms throughout
the whole country; they summoned all
their men to prayers and sermons twice-a-day
by beat of drum; they sang psalms, in which
they compared their enemies to all the evil
spirits that ever were heard of; and they
solemnly vowed to smite them with the
sword. At first the King tried force, then
treaty, then a Scottish Parliament, which did
not answer at all. Then he tried the EARL OF
STRAFFORD, formerly Sir Thomas Wentworth,
who, as LORD WENTWORTH. had been
governing Ireland. He, too, had carried it with a
very high hand there, though, it must be
frankly admitted, to the benefit and
prosperity of that country.

Strafford and Laud were, of course, for
conquering the Scottish people by force of
arms. Other lords who were taken into
council, recommended that a Parliament
should at last be called; to which the King
unwillingly consented. So, on the thirteenth
of April, one thousand six hundred and forty,
that then strange sight, a Parliament, was
seen at Westminster. It is called the Short
Parliament, for it lasted a very little while.
While the members were all looking at one
another, doubtful who would dare to speak,
MR. PYM arose and set forth all that the
King had done unlawfully during the past
twelve years, and what was the position to
which England was then reduced. This great
example set, other members took courage and
spoke the truth freely, though with great
patience and moderation. The King, a little
frightened, sent to say that if they would
grant him a certain sum on certain terms, no
more ship money should be raised. They
debated the matter for two days; and then,
as they would not give him all he asked
without promise or enquiry, he dissolved

But they knew very well that he must
have a Parliament now; and he began to
make that discovery too, though rather late
in the day. Wherefore, on the twenty-fourth
of September, being then at York with an
army collected against the Scottish people,
but sullen and discontented like the rest of
the nation, the King told a great council of
the Lords, whom he had called to meet him
there, that he would summon another
Parliament to assemble on the third of November.
The soldiers of the Covenant had now forced
their way into England and taken possession
of the northern counties, where the coals are
got: so, as it would never do to be without
coals, and as the King's troops could make
no head against the Covenanters so full of
gloomy zeal, a truce was made, and a treaty
with Scotland was taken into consideration.
Meanwhile the northern counties paid the
Covenanters to leave the coals alone, and
keep quiet.

We have now disposed of the Short
Parliament. We have next to see what memorable
things were done by the Long one.

On the 6th of September will be published, price 5s. 6d.,
neatly bound in Cloth,




Containing Numbers 154 to 179 (both inclusive), issued
between March 5th and August 27th, 1853.