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world not fewer than two hundred and
ninety-two thousand three hundred and
forty-seven persons. Of these, one hundred
and ninety-nine thousand left for the United
States of America, and fifty-two thousand for
the Australian gold regions. The remainder
went to Canada and to other places. The
channels through which all this has taken
place have been various. Parish emigration,
assisted emigration, free emigration,
emigration through the aid of relatives,
and lastly that mode of which we
purpose treating more especially. Government


It is eleven o'clock at night. The moon is
shining, not too brightly to dim the fun of the
"Gardens." There is a temporary respite.
The Suffolk prodigy, eight years of age, and
weighing an unlimited number of "stun,"
has exhibited his fat legs for the small charge
of threepence. Sporting amateurs in
pinafores have had a pop at a revolving target
of foxes and hares at a penny per shot.
Professor Contortini and his talented son
have tied themselves up into endless knots,
and the Signora Doubledoni has petrified her
patrons and patronesses (at twopence a head)
by her inexplicable powers of clairvoyance and
thought-reading. The grand concert is over,
in which the celebrated comic singer obtained
five encores. The angels of the grand ballet
have shed their wings and their muslin,
and are supping off saveloys with their
respective husbands and families. The visitors
have ascertained satisfactorily, by the
expenditure of sundry pennies, which amongst
themselves is the tallest, which the heaviest,
and which can punch a spring-buffer with the
greatest force. The Hungarian Band have
hung up their instruments, and are sporting
pea coats over their spangles and tights.
The Polygraphic Views are rolled up; the
American nine-pins are all finally knocked
down, and the Chinese peg-top has gone
to sleep for the night. The rifle-gallery
has ceased its whiz, fizz, slap, bang. The
Circus has displayed the talents of "the
graceful écuyère" the "dashing horsewoman,"
the "sylph of the arena," the "queen of the
manége" the "equestrian star," the "demon
horseman," the "gymnastic wonder," and the
"unequalled contortionists." The butter-tub
phenomenon has rolled his perilous way up a
hundred feet of inclined plane amidst the
breathless dread of the spectators that he
will tumble off and break his neck before he
has reached the end of the plank. The Elastic
Brothers have performed their matchless
feats of standing upon nothing and swinging
on chin-balanced poles twenty feet high.—
The din of amusement is over; and now
nothing remains to be seen but the achievements
of Chevalier Mortram, with his troop
of Salamanders. They have taken possession
of a certain dark portion of ground, backed
by a wood and canvas temple of an unknown
order of that ultra composite architecture
known as the Indescribable.

What the Chevalier is about to do no one
is supposed to know but himself In the
impenetrable breast of the artist lies the
determination whether there shall be rockets
with tail-stars, or with golden rain, or
with brilliant heads; whether Bengal lights
shall burst with green fire or red fire;
whether there shall be a pot d'aigrette,
with a tree of silver flowers and a grand
shower of fiery serpents; whether a shell
shall explode with brilliant stars, or with
snakes; whether there shall be a six-rayed
star, with Chinese flyers and a grand
cross of jerb fire; whether Jack-in-the-Box
shall explode his crackers in the air; whether
a Devil-among-the-Tailors shall end his
freaks with a grand explosion of flower-pots
and fizzgigs; whether there shall be a
cascade of golden flowers, or an asteroid
rocket to change colour seven times, or an
ascending shower of snakes, or a fiery dragon
to dart and wriggle and spit fire over the
heads of the spectators.

We are behind the scenes; and we there
learn from the renowned fire artist many
curious and interesting things. We are told
first that the pyrotechnic art illustrates many
of the most important principles in chemistry,
optics and dynamics. Explosion itself is, he
says, a chemical phenomenon. As a general
rule, pyrotechny depends on the property
which nitre possesses of accelerating the
combustion of inflammable substances, even when
excluded from the air; nitre, or saltpetre, or
sal-prunella (for they are nearly equivalent
names) is on this account the soul of all
pyrotechny. Of the substances whose
combustion nitre accelerates, sulphur is the
principal; it is used either as roll-sulphur or
flower of sulphur. The third most important
ingredient is charcoal; which is made from
hard wood or soft wood, and is ground finely
or coarsely, according to the kind of effect
which is required to be produced. Nitre,
sulphur, and charcoal, are the three
ingredients of gunpowder, and the pyrotechnist
uses them largely, as gunpowder, in this
combined state; but he also uses them
separately and in varied proportions. For minor
purposes, bitumen, pitch, tallow, resin, coal,
camphor, glass, mica, orpiment, alcohol, metal
filings, benzoin, oils, sawdust, amber, clay,
frankincense, myrrh, and other substances,
are occasionally employed; but nitre, sulphur,
charcoal, metal flings, and a few salts, are
the materials in ordinary of a brilliant display
of fireworks.

Let these materials be combined in
what number or proportions they may, a
chemical change instantly follows ignition.
The desired result may be an explosion, or a
recoil, or a flame, or a stream of sparks; but