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the vexations of the subaltern authorities
and the extortions of the traders, who
affect to represent the merchants of
Constantinople. Although the greater part of
the lands is devoted to the growth of wheat,
several vineyards have been planted. The
best wines are those of Widdin, Nicropolis,
Sistova, and Varna. The Bulgarians make
annually more than twenty thousand gallons
of alcoholic liquor, besides importing brandy
and rum from abroad. The mulberry tree
is cultivated with success only in the district
of Widdin, where the silk-worm spins to good
purpose; for the annual exports thence are
nearly thirty thousand okes (an oke is about
two pounds thirteen ounces avoirdupois) of
raw silk; chiefly into Austria.

A vast portion of the open country is
either entirely neglected, and abandoned
to the growth of thistles, or is allowed to
remain in fallow for many years. As in
Wallachia, the fertile plains are divided by
great forests, which, if properly administered,
might produce a great revenue. But, although
the government is the owner of the whole, it
allows the oak, the beech, the ash, and the
elm to grow until they choke one another.
There is no Commission of Woods and
Forests. It is no one's interest to
protect the trees from destruction; and it is
really a marvel that the fires, which the
charcoal-makers light at various points, do
not oftener destroy in a single day what
nature has taken an age to produce. The
woodmen go into the forests and choose trees
to cut down at random; and the peasants
often fell for firewood mighty oaks fit for the
construction of navies. They even make war
on the finest trees by preference, because
they have heard that some day this careless
state of things may end, and they wish to
destroy as far as possible everything that
might tempt a government to show itself;
for they always identify government with
forced labour. Those who cut wood for sale
are obliged to have a firman, which forbids
them, however, under severe penalties, to
carry any kind of wood to the Russian ports.

The forests of Bulgaria are not without
dangers. Wolves and bears, and wild-boars
are frequently met with. On the other hand,
those who have arms procure roebucks, and
hares, which they send to the towns for sale.
Many kinds of winged game are also found
either among the trees or on the borders of
the lakelets that here and there occur. In
the neighbourhood of the villages the
traveller is apprised of the presence of
habitations by the sight of immense numbers
of poultry. The pasturage of the country
is excellent for buffaloes, oxen, goats, sheep
and horses. Mules, asses, and pigs are rare.
The commonest kind of cattle is the buffalo,
which is the most useful as a beast of
burthen, gives most milk, and costs least to
feed. It is estimated that there are two
millions of buffaloes and one million of oxen
in Bulgaria. Many thousands are annually
exported to Hungary.

The wool produced by the flocks of sheep
is bought, even before the shearing time, by
the agents of the government for the
Imperial manufactory at Selimno. These agents,
however, take up more than is wanted, in
order to sell the remainder secretly to the
merchants of Adrianople, with whom they
have made a previous agreement. The
remainder of the yield is bought by the cloth
manufacturers of Turnova and Schumla. In
the latter town carpets are made of inferior
quality; but strong, with good colours
and designs. In the former town, is made
a good quantity of the coarse cloth, called
soukno, used by the peasants, both of
Bulgaria and Roumelia, for their garments.
Three-quarters of the wool produced are of
good quality and white; but the other quarter
is very inferior and black. One-third only of
the whole yield is of middling length. At
Schumla there is a hide-tannery for home
consumption. Untanned hides are exported
always with the horns on, either to
Constantinople or to Hungary via Routchuk and
the Danube. We may add that, in general,
the arts and trades are little developed in
Bulgaria. At Schumla, however, some copper
work is produced, and at Gabrova they make
knives and other household utensils with
iron in a very coarse and simple way.

In the various lakes of Bulgaria, and
along the shores of the Danube, great quantities
of fish, of various sizes and excellent
quality, are caught. Every one is free both
to fish and to catch leeches, which abound in
the ponds and marshes. A great trade is
carried on in these valuable articles; but,
although any one may take and use them,
they cannot be sold or exported but by one
person, who has bought a monopoly. Throughout
the Ottoman empire the trade in leeches
is farmed in the same manner. Seventy or
eighty quintals of leeches are exported every

A considerable portion of the internal
commerce of this curious province is carried
on at fairs that take place three times a year,
in April, May, and July, at Bazarzick,
Giouma, Schumla and Karassan. The most
important is that of Giouma, a town situated
in the neighbourhood of Razgrad, at some
hours' distance from Routchuk. It is estimated
that fifty thousand pounds' worth of merchandise
were sold at this fair in May, eighteen
hundred and forty-nine. The most common
articles offered for sale are woollen cloths,
cotton or linen cloths, dyes, grocery, steel
blades, arms, worked steel, tissues of gold or
silver, furs, horses and horn cattle. Great
numbers of German merchants repair to this
place by way of Routchuk.

However, as may easily be supposed, there
exist great obstacles, in the internal
administration of Bulgaria, to the proper development
of commerce. No care, moreover, has