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on the balani of the whale; whether to
lay eggs on or in him, as the bat-fly does
on the horse's coat and the ichneumon-
fly in the caterpillar's skin;—I know not,
and I don't know who does. Certain it
is that these unexplained relations have
existed between water-fleas and wheelers
for these hundred years past. On looking
at my cyclops, I saw in his stomach
an undigested wheeler which he had not
long devoured; for it was still alive. The
one uncaught continued his persecutions
fearlessly, until the water began to fail. As the
drop evaporated into thirsty air, little rotifer
tucked himself under cyclop's body, as the
dampest spot he could select, leaving the tip
of his tail outside to ascertain the prospect
of moister weather, exactly as you stretch
your hand out of doors to feel whether it is
beginning to rain or not. Could you have
done better than the animalcule under the
same circumstances? Does it not read like
a man crouching under a dying camel in a
Saharan wilderness, and sustaining life to
the last moment on the juices of the more
massive animal?

As to the size of our minims, living or
dead, Leuwenhoek measured them by grains
of sand selected of such an equal size that a
hundred of them placed in a row should
extend an inch in length. Observing an
animalcule swimming or running past his
standard grain, he estimated by comparison
the magnitude of the former. Natural
objects whose size is known and which do not
vary, have since been employed as micrometric
measures; the sporules of the puff-ball
fungus have a diameter the eight thousand
five-hundredth of an inch, while those of the
lycopodium are the nine hundred and fortieth
of an inch across. Fixed artificial standards
are now generally substituted for natural
ones. Dr. Wollaston has obtained a
platinum wire only the thirty thousandth of an
inch in thickness; but minute scales,
engraved on glass, with a diamond point, are
now most commonly employed. Suppose,
for example, a line, the twentieth of an
inch in length, traced across the centre of
a glass disc. Let this line be divided into a
hundred equal parts, every fifth division
being distinguished by a longer line, and
every tenth by a still longer one. Each of
these divisions will be the two-thousandth,
the intervals between the fifth divisions will
be the four-hundredth, and those between the
tenth divisions the two-hundredth part of an

This microscopic scale will be seen magnified
with the microscope; and any microscopic
object laid upon it will be equally magnified,
so that its dimensions can be
ascertained by merely counting the divisions of
the scale included between those which mark
its limits when placed in different positions
on the scale. But, in truth, inches and their
fractions ought to be utterly discarded from
measurements which are independent of
popular prejudice. Here, at least, we may
employ a decimal scale founded on the METRE,
fearless of resistance from the vested
interests of ells, pence, pottles, pennyweights,
and other influential members of the Weights-
and-Measures Corporation. In the scales
delivered with French instruments, a
millimètre (about the twenty-fifth of an inch)
is divided into one hundred parts. The
microscopist can apply to his science a reform
which as yet is refused to our everyday
affairs, and will measure his minims by the
decimal fraction of the earth's meridian from
equator to pole.

             WORD ANALOGIES.

     ONE the gracious line of beauty
          In all kinds of beauteous form,
     One the flowing law of duty
          Beautifying calm and storm:
     So it seem'd to me one morning,
          Watching childhood ambling by,
     Looking on a flower's adorning,
          Gazing on a clouded sky.

     So meseem'd it:—youthful paces
         Flow of graceful beauty have;
     Flowing growth have flower graces
         Also, like the flowing wave;
     Wave, wind, flower, "all a-blowing;"
         And we speak of youthful bloom;
     Flight is flown too,—flown from flowing:
         Flowing, flowering line of doom.

     Blow, ye gales of vernal sweetness!
         Flow, ye veins of human joy!
     Flower, O life, unto completeness!
         Flower-like bloom, dear girl or boy!
     Stormful wind and flower belovèd,
         Both are blossoms of God's breath.
     Angel wings of God's Approvèd,
         Float us o'er the flood of death!



IN St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kasan, Odessa,
Kieff, Wladimir, Smolensk, Novgorod, and
Ekaterinoslafnot only in these, but in
every Russian government town whose
proportions exceed those of a villagethere is a
Gostinnoï-dvor (literally, Things Yard, cour
aux choses), or general bazaar for the sale of
merchandise and dry provisions. The
conquered and treaty-acquired provinces
Polish, Swedish, German, and Turkish
have their markets and emporia; but the
Gostinnoï-dvor is an institution thoroughly
and purely Russian, and thoroughly Asiatic.
It will be my province, in papers to come,
to speak of the Gostinnoï-dvor at Moscow,
in which the native and humble Russian
element is more strongly pronounced, and
which is a trifle more picturesque, and a great
deal dirtier, than its sister establishment
in Petropolis. To the Gostinnoï-dvor, then,
of St. Petersburg I devote this paper. It
is vaster in size, and incomparably more