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shall always be grateful to you, and be
your friend with all my heartif you will
let me be so," answered the surgeon.

Within a quarter of an hour he was on
his road to Shipley Magna.


A TRULY golden idea was conceived by
Boniface the Eighth; he invented the
jubilee. The old Romans celebrated the
commencement of each century with great
festivities, and the Jews had also their
jubilees. The pope probably derived his
idea from this source. Who made a pilgrimage
in such a year to Rome, and deposited
a certain sum on the altar, received
indulgence for all sins ever committed in
all his life, and might leave again as
innocent as a baby!

Not fewer than two hundred thousand
strangers passed the year 1300 in Rome.
It is impossible to estimate the amount
paid in gold and silver to the church by
rich people, as the pope did not think it
expedient to publish it; but what was paid
only in copper amounted to fifty thousand
golden gilders, and according to a moderate
estimation about fifteen millions were paid
in all: a sum of which the value in 1300
was nearly fabulous. This rich harvest
of course whetted the papal appetite. The
treasure of the pope was inexhaustiblein
indulgencesand Clement the Sixth had
the great kindness to order that a similar
jubilee should take place every fifty-six
years. Indeed a venerable man with two
keys, of course St. Peter, appeared to
him and said, with a threatening gesture,
"Open the gate!" What could he do but
obey? Urban the Sixth was still kinder.
He shortened the time again to thirty-three
years in remembrance of the age of Christ.
Sixtus the Fourth was so liberal as to
lower it again to twenty- five years, on
account of the brevity of human life.

The second jubilee, under Clement the
Sixth (1350), proved still more productive
than the first. In his jubilee bull, the
pope "ordered the angels of paradise to
release from purgatory the souls of those
who might die on their way to Rome, and
to introduce them directly into paradise."
Rome was so much crowded that year, that
the hotel-keepers became nearly crazy. Two
priests relieved each other day and night
at the altar of St. Peter, with rakes in their
hands raking in the money offered by the
faithful, who so crowded the church that
many were crushed to death. Ten thousand
pilgrims died of the pest, but it was scarcely
noticed, for their total number amounted
to more than one million and a half, and
the money they gave to the church amounted
to above twenty-two millions!

Boniface the Ninth calculated that there
were very many Christians who could not
come to Rome, either because the journey
cost too much, or because they could not
well leave their business. He therefore
sent them indulgences to their own doors,
for one-third of the travelling expenses.

Leo the Tenth, a very luxurious piece
of infallibility, spent immense sums on
his "children, relatives, jesters, comedians,
musicians, and artists," and was very
desirous of increasing the ample resources
of the church. As a pretext for extorting
money he commenced building St. Peter's
church. For that purpose the whole earth
was divided in districts, and travellers of
the great Roman firm, under the title of
legates or commissioners, were sent to
each of them, empowered to grant (for a
sufficient consideration in money) the most
ample indulgences.

In the price list of the papal office was
stated the price for each sin. It had been
already issued by Innocent the Eighth
(1484–1792), and contained in forty-two
chapters five hundred items, of which we
will give only a few specimens. Wilful
murder committed by a priest was to be
forgiven for two gold gilders and eight
groschens; the murder of a father, mother,
sister, or brother, cost only one gilder
twelve groschens; if, however, a heretic
wanted to be forgiven for his heresy, he
had to pay fourteen gilders eight groschens;
and a mass in an excommunicated city cost
forty gilders. For the payment of twelve
ducats, priests were permitted to indulge in
the most unnatural vices and sins. The most
revolting part of this tax list is, however,
its conclusion: "The poor cannot partake
in such graces, for they have no money,
and must therefore dispense with such

Leo the Tenth found it convenient to
rent this indulgence privilege for a certain
sum. Margrave Albrecht, of Brandebourg,
who was Archbishop of Magdeburg, and
Bishop of Halberstadt, and also Archbishop
of Mayence, and Cardinal, rented the indulgence
business in some countries, and
gave his agents very business-like instructions,
which are highly curious, but too long
to be quoted. Whosoever bought an
indulgence certificate from one of these agents