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had part in all the good works done on
which indulgence depended, within the
whole Christian world, whether he
repented of his sins or not, and
though he did not confess them.

Many people bought indulgence for
several hundred years, though life lasts
on the average not seventy; but the
years in purgatory were counted, and as,
according to the priests, a soul had to
remain for certain sins a certain number
of years in purgatory, an expert sinner
might easily want indulgence for a few
hundred years. Whosoever desired, and
could afford, to enter directly after death
into paradise, had to buy indulgence for a
good round number of years. But
whosoever kissed a relicand paid for the kiss
received indulgence for several years,
according to the holiness of the relic.
Archbishop Albrecht possessed such a
treasure of relics, that their indulgence
powers was calculated at "thirty-nine
thousand, two hundred thousand, five hundred
and forty thousand one hundred and
twenty years, two hundred and twenty

A rather lucrative source of revenue to
the "Apostolic see" were the "annates:"
that is, the income of the first year, which
every newly-appointed bishop had to pay
the pope. This income can be averaged
at nearly two thousand pounds a year, and
as at least two thousand bishops paid
annates to the popes, the whole sum
amounts to about twenty-four millions of

The many dispensations, which could only
be granted by the popes, realised also
considerable sums: for instance, the required
dispensation in the case of marriages
between blood relations. These must have
been wanted very frequently, as, according
to the regulations made by the popes,
relations up to the fourteenth degree were
prohibited from marrying. Somebody has
taken the trouble to calculate that on the
average every man has living at least
sixteen thousand of such blood relations, and
that if all kinds of relationships be
considered, one million forty-eight thousand
five hundred and twenty-six would be the
sum total of his little family. John the
Twenty-second, who set up that above-
mentioned price-list, made so much money,
that he, a poor cobbler's son, left sixteen
millions of coined gold, and seventeen
millions in bullion.

A considerable papal income was derived
from the moneys paid for the pallium.
This is originally a Roman cloak. The
emperors presented with such a garment
the patriarchs and some distinguished
bishops, as a pledge of their good graces.
These palliums were of purple, and richly
embroidered with gold. Gregory the First
was the first pope who ventured to send
such a pallium to bishops, either as a token
of his satisfaction with their conduct, or of
confirmation in their office, without asking
the permission of the emperor; and soon
the popes assumed not only the exclusive
right of giving such cloaks, but even
compelled archbishops and bishops to procure
them from Rome, for the small charge of
thirty thousand gilders each. John the
Eighth even declared every archbishop
deposed, who did not get his pallium within
three months. In course of time, the popes
became so avaricious under this head, that
the cost of the cloak became too great
for them, and it shrunk and shrunk until
nothing remained but a kind of ribbon, four
inches wide, ornamented with a red cross.
These ribbons were woven, by the hands of
nuns, of wool taken from lambs consecrated
over the graves of the apostles, and of which
the pope kept a small flock. He was
certainly the most fortunate sheep breeder
going, for he sold his wool at one hundred
and seventy-five thousand florins per pound!
These palliums brought in a nice round
sum, for archbishops are usually rather old
gentlemen, and every new archbishop had
to buy a new one, even though he was only
transferred to some other see. Salzburg
had to pay within nine years ninety-seven
thousand scudi for palliums; and
Archbishop Markulf, of Mayence, had to sell the
left leg of a Christ of gold to pay for his.

Archbishop Arnold, of Trèves, was rather
perplexed when two rival popes, both
infallible, sent him each an infallible pallium,
of course with the infallible bill for the

No wonder that the popes spent plenty
of money. Sixtus the Sixth (1476-84)
spent as a cardinal, in two years, above
two hundred thousand ducats, and was far
more extravagant when a pope; some of
his dinners cost twenty thousand gilders.
He imposed some taxes so infamous that
we dare not mention them.

It is very difficult to calculate the incomes
of the popes and the clergy in olden times,
and one can form only some idea of their
immense amount from occasional
revelations. When the convents were abolished
during the French revolution, and the
possessions of the church were threatened with